The two surviving wolves on Isle Royale—pictured here in February—are to be joined this fall by wolves from Michigan and Minnesota. In the next 6 weeks, the U. The operation is to be completed by 31 October. Just two inbred wolves remain of the Isle Royale population that has been preying on moose and studied for nearly 60 years.
The new wolves are to be the first wave of several over the next 3 years, expected to result in a new population of 20 to 30 wolves. With this reboot of the predator-prey system , NPS is also seeking to engage more scientists to study the unique wilderness park. The original Isle Royale population was founded by two or three wolves, with occasional influxes of new genes from mainland wolves wandering over the ice in cold winters.
With ice bridges diminishing, planners have considered genetic diversity of the wolves along with an equal ratio of males to females. The mainland wolves will also be collared and screened for diseases. Two wolves are to come from the Upper Peninsula in Michigan and two to four from the northeastern Minnesota reservation of the Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, which has likely been the home of wolves that found their way to Isle Royale in past decades.
So the imported wolves are going to have to learn how to bring down the kilogram mammals. New readers must develop automatic associations between these orthographic patterns and their corresponding phonological forms, a process that will be impaired if either of the com- ponent pieces is impaired. Similarly, it is insufficiently understood whether the speed of retrieval of either or both of these representations may be the underlying problem.
It may well be that for some children, fluency-related, speed of processing issues contribute to the inability of the reading circuit to function sufficiently rapidly for fluent comprehension. Other components and factors affecting the formation of the reading circuit require far more research attention.
In order for readers to identify words quickly, and in order for them to gather informa- tion from written text, they must have semantic knowledge that is both wide and deep. Such rich semantic knowledge allows readers to recognize words rapidly and accurately and to access the meaning of a word that is most appropriate to a sentence in an efficient manner. Struggling readers, however, often have limited and rigid semantic knowledge, sometimes as a result of their laborious decoding. They simply do not have time to read and think about the precise meaning in a sentence.
Proust and the Squid : Maryanne Wolf :
Thus, they may have trouble recognizing a word across vari- ous contexts and often struggle to integrate the various meanings of a word flexibly enough to comprehend the particular meaning in a specific context. As a result, struggling readers often have trouble both learning new words and learning more about the words they already know. When such semantic deficits occur alone, they can lead to delayed reading development and comprehension issues Stanovich, It is important to recognize that some children have vocabulary deficits for no biologi- cal predisposition, but because of inadequate early childhood experience with rich language Moats, Children who enter school with limited vocabu- lary knowledge encounter numerous challenges Biemiller, They may have trouble understanding details of stories and directions, and they may lack the background knowledge that is associated with, and structured by, certain categories of vocabulary.
As described, skilled readers require rich, automatic, and integrated knowledge of word sounds, spellings, and meanings. However, they also need accurate and increasingly auto- matic knowledge of how these words are formed and how they can work together in a sen- tence. Thus, adequate syntactic and morphological knowledge are critical for reading success, even though these skills are rarely taught in reading classrooms. Although all typically devel- oping speakers possess implicit knowledge of spoken syntax and morphology, some children require explicit training to translate this implicit knowledge to understanding text.
Over time, children with reading difficulties begin to evidence less overall language com- petence than their peers and may have trouble capitalizing on their implicit understanding of morphosyntax to make sense of written text. It is a vicious circle. Any failure to develop morphosyntactic knowledge magnifies other reading problems. Struggling readers who fail to develop this knowledge have less ability to decode words using morphological analysis and reduced ability to elicit context clues from syntactic structure Wolf, By contrast, the skilled reader who is gaining increased exposure to more sophisticated text is learning to coordinate all of these multiple areas of knowledge—phonological, ortho- graphic, semantic, syntactic, and morphological—and use them to read still more sophisti- cated text that, in turn, propels reading development.
In order for any new reader to achieve the true goal of fluent reading comprehension with its bridge into the world of ideas, the component subskills of the reading process must become close to automatic. Traditional phonics interventions, for example, provide important training in phono- logical awareness and sound-letter correspondence but often neglect semantic, syntactic, and morphological areas of knowledge.
It is important to state that RAVE-O is not meant to replace other decoding methods but rather to be used to complement and expand a strong phonics curriculum that emphasizes phoneme and decoding skills.
We know that the brain of a skilled reader is constantly integrat- ing phonological, orthographic, semantic, syntactic, and morphological processes to create a real-time cognitive representation of the meaning of the text. Similarly, RAVE-O attempts to integrate targeted instruction in all facets of a word in the same lesson, thus compelling children to coordinate their phonological, orthographic, semantic, syntactic, and morphologi- cal knowledge of words and to render this knowledge as automatic as possible.
RAVE-O also includes direct instruction in word retrieval strategies to give children with word-retrieval deficits, a common occurrence in dyslexia, specific tools they can use independently to access difficult-to-recall terms. Although these results are reported elsewhere in detail, a few findings are important to emphasize here.
Along with its strong theoretical foundation, these positive research results establish RAVE-O as one of the most effective interventions for many children with reading disabilities, most especially for the three fourths of these children who have fluency-related issues. The Implications of an Evolving Reading Brain for the Use of Digital Media As described in the introduction, new technologies are fundamentally transforming the way we receive, use, and provide information. Just as Socrates predicted for the transition from oral to written language cultures in ancient Greece, new media bring both threats to previous capacities and advantages for acquiring new ones.
Then as now, the major issue concerns the intellectual changes in the cognitive capacities of the young. Although new digital media may allow unprecedented, independent access to information for millions of people, they also may change, or even degrade, some of the cognitive capacities that permitted us to learn and indeed invent them.
Studies of the brain reading online provide a mixed view of the potential implications for cognition. Deep reading in the expert reading brain, on the other hand, is a slow, immersive process in which a reader requires time and cognitive space to engage in deep thought.
Deep reading is characterized by infer- ence, analogical thinking, critical analysis and deliberation, contemplation, and—in its high- est forms—insight and epiphany. Adults characterized by expert reading levels are usually well trained from early on in the automatic use of deep reading skills and, therefore, are unlikely to be significantly affected by experiences with digital media.
They have already created the cognitive circuits necessary to engage in deep reading, and they have experienced the benefits of slow, critical thought.
We question, however, the effects of the intrinsically passive digital media on the capacity and motivation of children to learn to expend the more laborious sophisticated capacities neces- sary for thinking deeply, critically, and autonomously. Children in their developmental formation period concern us most.
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The challenge now is how to enable the children to navigate virtual media deftly as we teach them to think deeply about what they read. Children in these phases of the development of their reading circuit need to learn how to focus and concentrate all their attention on text that is worthy of their sustained attention whether in print or screen mediums.
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They need to learn how to expend the time-intensive efforts necessary to think critically about their reading, wherever it is to be found. The longitudinal research needed here is not available to guide us, but knowledge about the plasticity of the reading brain is sufficient for us to realize—along with Socrates—that how the child learns to read will have lifelong consequences.
As the guardians and temporary stewards of their world, we need to be fully aware about how our choices today in the formation of their reading faculties can and will change their world.
Technological Innovation and Dyslexia Although we eschew any tidy binary view of digital versus print media, we have no ambiva- lence about the unparalleled potential such media provide children who are dyslexic and whose often richly talented thought processes have been obfuscated by their different paths in learning to read. For decades, persons with reading impairments have struggled with stig- matizing tools in an attempt to access information freely, without hindrance from their diffi- culties. New media, however, are already transforming the lives of many people with dyslexia and promise to do so even more profoundly in the near future.
Omnipresent and high-quality speech-to-text software and voice Internet navigation allow individuals to express their often inventive ideas and to explore the digital environment with- out limitations imposed by poor reading and spelling ability. Excellent and widely available screen reading software allows people to access information easily and autonomously at the same time and in the same format as better readers. Nontextual forms of communication such as visual art, audio files, and videos are able to be created and disseminated with relative ease, allowing many people with reading disability to share their thoughts with the world in a manner that capitalizes on their unique strengths.
Proust and the squid : the story and science of the reading brain
Together, these innovations may change the experience of having reading disabilities to one of having a learning difference. A reconceptualization of developmental dys- lexia is long overdue, and the advantages conveyed by digital media may well become one part of these changes with its ability to provide new vehicles for expression and communication. Bringing Technological Innovation and Literacy to Developing Countries Just as digital media has the potential to reduce or even eliminate the information gap between dyslexia and typical readers, it also has the potential to dramatically reduce the information gap between developing and developed countries.
Through carefully designed educational applications, computers may be able to provide an effective, virtual learning environment for students without access to adequate formal schooling and provide such students with the training and information they need to engage competitively in the modern world. Although U. The situ- ation is not much better for children, with 67 million primary age children outside of any school and unlikely to ever become literate members of society. Access to schools, however, is not an immediate ticket to literacy.
Such statistics, in the context of the critical importance of reading skills in building the foundation for all future learning, are sobering realities requir- ing our most intensive application of research in the areas discussed in this article.
Literacy is not a single skill. Once obtained, it multiplies benefits within the lives of in- dividuals and in communities for public health, economic prosperity, security and stability, and gender equality.