You can also add additional custom elevation surfaces. Examples of custom elevation surfaces include one that defines the depth of a geological stratum, or one that defines the height of a restricted airspace. You can set the height of feature layers to be drawn on the ground, relative to the ground, or at an absolute height from the elevation surface. To add an elevation source to the ground surface, use the Add Data menu from the Map tab, select Elevation Source , and browse to the desired elevation data.
This adds the elevation source to the ground and makes it visible in the Contents pane. You can optionally use the context menu for the Elevation Surfaces group in the Contents pane to add a new custom surface and configure its source. Any appearance or behavior settings for elevation surfaces, such as navigation underground, are on the Appearance tab for the selected surface. Each elevation surface can have one or more elevation data sources that define the height across the surface.
The table below lists supported elevation sources. In areas where the elevation source values overlap, the value from the elevation source listed first in the Contents pane is used to define the surface. You can move elevation sources within the elevation category by dragging it to the associated elevation surface, or to a different elevation surface. Also, an elevation surface can have no elevation source at all.
In this case, all elevation surface values are defined at an absolute, constant height of 0. Surface Color may be used when no source is present.
Each map or scene contains a predefined elevation surface called Ground that cannot be removed. If you are not connected to the Internet, you will not have access to this service and the ground elevation will be 0. You can optionally add a local elevation source to the ground elevation surface. Because Ground represents the surface of the earth, you can apply navigation rules to it.
By default, navigation below ground is disabled. It is often unnecessary to go below ground and can be disorienting when you go there by accident. If, however, your scene contains data that correctly belongs underground—such as subsurface utility pipes or geological features—you can enable below-ground navigation.
In this mode, the height list in the lower corner of the scene view shows negative values when you're below the ground surface. You can enter negative numbers directly, such as m , to navigate the camera vertically below the surface. To enable navigation below ground, follow these steps:. In addition to the ground elevation surface, you can add additional custom elevation surfaces.
Surface Finish Chart, Symbols & Roughness Conversion Tables
Custom elevation surfaces must have a valid elevation source. You can change the name of the elevation surface by double-clicking the newly added elevation surface. In addition to adding a single custom surface, you can add multiple custom surfaces at once. Multiple sources can be selected in the Add Elevation Source dialog and a custom surface is created for each source with the surface name matching the source name.
An elevation source contains the data that defines the elevation surface. An elevation surface can have more than one elevation source, and you can combine different types. Local elevation sources can be either a raster that contains elevation information or a TIN dataset. LAS datasets and terrain datasets cannot be used as an elevation source.
You can also use an elevation image service as an elevation source or a portal web elevation layer. If you use custom image services, make sure you have elevation defined as the service type. Note: You cannot add the same elevation source if it is already present in the elevation surface. You can share an elevation source of type raster file as an elevation layer. The order of elevation sources in the elevation surface determines the order they are used, so the data source with the highest resolution should be placed highest in elevation source order.
When you navigate to an area of your map or scene that is outside the extent of the first highest resolution elevation source, the next elevation source in the list will be used, and so on. Properties for an elevation source can be accessed via the Elevation Source Properties dialog box. In the Contents pane of a scene, right-click the elevation source, and click Properties. The options are as follows: General —Specify the layer name.here
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Source —View the spatial reference of your data. A flame cut plate edge has a radically different surface finish than a ground surface, for example. Sometimes, more than one process must be overlaid to achieve the desired result cost-effectively. For more on manufacturing processes and the cost of maintaining tight tolerances and surface finishes, see our article:.
There are a number of different characteristics we might measure with respect to Surface Finish. Our chart of surface finishes by manufacturing process see above gives both. When we try to measure a surface finish, the methods fall into three categories:. Think of a sensitivity more in line with a phonograph needle than a typical CNC Probe.
Examples of area techniques include optical scattering, ultrasonic scattering, and capacitance probes. Area techniques are easier to automate and faster to execute, but profiling techniques are often more accurate. Instrumenets used to measure Surface Roughness using these various techniques are called Profilometers. Who Makes the World's Best Screwdrivers?
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Start Now, It's Free! It is the average roughness in the area between the roughness profile and its mean line. Graphically, Ra is the area between the roughness profile and its centerline divided by the evaluation length. The evaluation length is normally five sample lengths where each sample length is equal to one cutoff length. Ra is by far the most commonly used Surface Finish parameter. One reason it is so common is that it is fairly easy to take the absolute value of a signal and integrate the signal using analog electronics, so Ra could be measured by instruments that contain no digital circuits.
Ra, while common, is not sufficient to completely characterize the roughness of a surface. Depending on the application, surfaces with the same Ra can perform quite differently. Here are 4 surfaces with the same Ra and quite different shapes:. All four surfaces have the same Ra but quite different shapes…. Rmax is particularly sensitive to anomalies such as scratches and burrs that may not be obvious from measures such as Ra that rely on averages.
Rz is often preferred to Ra in Europe and particularly Germany. Instead of measuring from centerline like Ra, Rz measures the average of the 5 largest peak to valley differences within five sampling lengths. While Ra is relatively insensitive to a few extremes, Rz is quite sensitive since it is the extremes it is designed to measure. Here is a chart table showing how Roughness Grade Numbers convert to Ra numbers:. One approach to Surface Finish is to use abrasives or sand the surface.
This chart converts from abrasive grit to Surface Finish Ra values:. There are many factors that affect surface finish, with the biggest being the manufacturing process see table above. For machining processes, such as milling, turning, and grinding, factors such as cutting tool selection, machine tool condition, toolpath parameters, feeds, speeds, tool deflection, cut width stepover , cut depth, coolant, and vibration are just a few of the many.
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A 45 degree lead angle facemill will produce a finer finish. In general, adjust feeds and speeds for a lower chip load at the same rpms for a better finish. G-Wizard will also warn you if rubbing is a risk, which will help you avoid that problem. Turning is very similar to 3D profiling in that the stepover, in this case determined by the feedrate while turning, results in scallops that match the shape of the turning insert.